Theodore Conrad and Harvey Wiley Corbett
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower

Theodore Conrad, Met Life building model, c. 1929 DM 2224.3 IN SET – Drawing Matter

Theodore Conrad (model maker) and Harvey Wiley Corbett (architect), Metropolitan Life Insurance Company study model, circa 1929.

Theodore Conrad, installation view of Met Life building model, c. 1929 DM 2224.3 IN SET – Drawing Matter

Pencil on card, on wooden support. 415 × 60 × 90 mm. Photos by James Ewing / Courtesy Columbia GSAPP

The fragment of Theodore Conrad’s 1929 cardboard model of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company tower designed by Harvey Wiley Corbett (1873–1954) — featured in the current exhibition Model Projections at the Arthur Ross Architecture Gallery at Columbia GSAPP — marks an early episode in the American model maker’s career and an experimental moment in the design development of one of Corbett’s most significant architectural projects. Though the architect envisioned a 100-storey telescoping tower on Madison Square Park in New York City — then the tallest structure in the world — only the 30-storey base of the building was realised. Ironically, the unexecuted tower is the only portion of the model that survives. It is comprised of cardboard pieces, glued together, with windows and architectural details drawn in pencil and watercolour. It is a curious object: a hybrid model and drawing. Handwritten numbers on the facade mark the storeys — perhaps to confirm that the designer and model maker had accounted for every floor of the soaring the tower in this three-dimensional representation.

Conrad, Archival replacement image – Drawing Matter

Archival materials from the Harvey Wiley Corbett collection (top row) and Theodore Conrad collection (bottom row), Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library. Photo by Irene Sunwoo.

Conrad began working in the office of Harvey Wiley Corbett, an accomplished architect of skyscrapers, while studying architecture at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn during the late 1920s. There he began what would become a prolific model making career by learning how to construct architectural models out of cardboard — a process Corbett had detailed and extolled in a series of articles published in the journal Pencil Points in 1922. Titled ‘Architectural Models in Cardboard’, the articles included instructions for cutting and scoring cardboard, tips for creating Ionic and Doric column details, recommendations for tools — tweezers, clamps and nozzles — and material suggestions for landscaping effects and scale objects, such as trees and cars. More than just a guide for making architectural models, Corbett’s articles made a broader argument for a shift in architectural representation: compared to architectural renderings, which offered limited information about a building and often appealed to fantasy, he claimed that photography of cardboard models produced more comprehensive and accurate imagery that could nourish the design process, helping architects to imagine a building in its future site. The set of artefacts on display in the exhibition explores this convergence of representational techniques.

Photo collage (detail) Met Life tower, c. 1929 IN SET – Drawing Matter

Photo collage (detail), Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, circa 1929. Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library. Photo by James Ewing / Courtesy Columbia GSAPP.

A sequence of photographic proofs and a photo collage from Corbett’s archive, housed at the Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library, document the complete model and provide insight into how multiple forms of representation fuelled Corbett’s design process. A photograph of the full model (likely shot in his studio) reveals that the wooden pole on the underside of the tower model would have fit into a separate model of the building’s base. In a second print of this photograph, the model has been cut out from its background so that it appears as a freestanding object. This model imagery culminates in a photo collage: the Met Life model has been cut and spliced into a photograph of the existing building site. The resulting composite is a near seamless integration of current and future development — an analogue process that prefigured contemporary digital rendering. More than documents of objects and sites, these images were experimental design tools. Indeed, the pinholes and irregular edges of the photographs suggest that they were attached to Corbett’s studio walls to inspire and provoke discussion.

Model Projections (Columbia GSAPP) informal installation view 3 IN SET – Drawing Matter

Installation view, Model Projections, Arthur Ross Architecture Gallery. Photo by Irene Sunwoo.

Model Projections (Columbia GSAPP) installation view 1 IN SET – Drawing Matter

Installation view of Model Projections, Arthur Ross Architecture Gallery. Exhibition design by Agency—Agency. Photo by James Ewing / Courtesy Columbia GSAPP.

Reunited on the occasion of Model Projections, the cardboard model and model photographs of the Met Life tower together present a rich, introductory case study in the exhibition, which explores the complex pathways between architecture and its representations through an examination of the practice of model making. Drawing from multiple special collections at Avery Library — including the archives of Conrad and Corbett, as well as Skidmore, Owings & Merrill and photographer Louis Checkman — the exhibition traces an ecosystem of architectural model making during the mid-twentieth century. At its centre is Conrad, whose material experiments and specialised production techniques offer a framework for questioning the relationships between technology and craft, authenticity and authorship, architectural vision and systematised labour. Exploration of these ephemeral registers of architectural production reveals that the model itself was a site of collaboration, negotiation and speculation — not unlike the full-scale building that it anticipated. 

– Jennifer Gray and Irene Sunwoo


On other Manhattan skyscrapers Hugh Ferris; the 1930 elevator diagram of the Empire State Building; the computer-generated 1968 skyline; and the Continuous Monument in New York; and on collage in the depiction of the modernist tall building, Mies van der Rohe.