A Civic Utopia: Sanitas

Sanitas, or the notion of civic hygiene, looks at the regulation of commerce for the benefit of public health and convenience, taking the particular example of processing and trading in perishable goods through raised, well-aired, watered, and open markets.

Pierre-Francois-Leonard Fontaine, Market details, 1820, DM 1711.6 IN SET – Drawing Matter

Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine (1762–1853), Détails du Marché précédent, 1820. Pencil, black pen and coloured washes on laid paper, sheet mounted with a border of gold paint, black and green washes on card, 155 × 425 mm. Drawing Matter Collections

Pierre-Francois-Leonard Fontaine, Market details, 1820, DM 1711.7 IN SET – Drawing Matter

Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine (1762–1853), Détails du Marché précédent, 1820. Pencil, black pen and coloured washes on laid paper, sheet mounted with a border of gold paint, black and green washes on card, 225 × 430 mm. Drawing Matter Collections

Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine intended to include these drawings in an unrealised publication of public architecture models. Markets became a crucial architectural type symbolic of hygienic and commercial progress promoted by public authorities in the nineteenth century. Fontaine addresses these concerns in deliberately vernacular, informal and unimposing structures, producing a strikingly practical compromise for a court architect. – BB

Andre-Marie Chatillon, Market perspective, 1601.80 IN SET – Drawing Matter

Andre-Marie Chatillon (1782–1859), Etude de la vue perspective du premier projet du Marché des Patriarches, c. 1828. Watercolour on laid paper, 305 × 225 mm. Drawing Matter Collections

Chatillon's spacious covered market, originally designed as a sanitary site for the sale of fresh foods, was constructed near the rue Mouffetard on the left bank of Paris between 1828 and 1832. As the city grew it became a flea market and a favourite subject of photographers, writers and film-makers depicting the crowded but increasingly insalubrious character of the city's working class quarters. It was demolished in 1953. The inscription – added to this study when gathered into an album of Chatillon's work – notes that the core of the project followed this first design, with its raised platform and high ventilating roof to cleanse the air, but that both the side aisles for little shops and the configuration of the upper roof were “extremely changed.” – NO

Charles-Joseph Le Jolivet, Boucherie at Avallon, c. 1783, DM 2592 IN SET – Drawing Matter

Charles-Joseph Le Jolivet (1727–1794), Developpements projettés d'une Boucherie à construire dans la Ville d'Avallon sur la Place ditte de la Boucherie, c. 1783. Pen, ink and wash on two joined sheets of laid paper, watermarked: 'Vanderley', 370 × 915 mm. Drawing Matter Collections

The small city of Avallon was the centre of an extensive trade in cattle, sheep, leather and meats.  This proposal by the senior official architect of Burgundy envisages a well-aired, raised hygienic market for more than twenty of the city’s butchers, who had ceded their corporation and its original market (in a roughly converted and unsanitary town house) to the city in 1757. Le Jolivet’s distinctive landmark would have filled the triangular place near where the routes to Paris and Lyon met at the centre of the town.  The project as drawn was apparently not constructed; but a city boucherie based on its principles appeared in 1792 and became noted for the cleanliness and condition of its meats through the use of the “current of air” produced by a high roof, many openings, and a position elevated above the dust and detritus of the street. – NO